J. Phys. Chem. 103, 4570-4577 (1999).
Hydrophobicity at Small and Large Length Scales
K. Lum, D. Chandler and J. D. Weeks
We develop a unified and generally applicable theory of solvation of small
and large apolar species in water. In the former, hydrogen bonding of water
is hindered yet persists near the solutes. In the latter, hydrogen bonding
is depleted, leading to drying of extended apolar surfaces, large forces of
attraction, and hysteresis on mesoscopic length scales. The cross over
occurs on nanometer length scales, when the local concentration of apolar
units is sufficiently high, or when an apolar surface is sufficiently large.
Our theory for the crossover has implications concerning the stability of
protein assemblies and protein folding.
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