this is me Dr. Xinan Liu
Research Professor
Coordinator of the Thermal-Fluids Undergraduate Laboratory

Room 1209, Jeong H. Kim Engineering Building
Department of Mechanical Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742
Phone: 301.405.8745
Fax: 301.314.9477

Research Interests:

  • The effects of wind and waves on the impact of raindrops on ocean surface
  • The response of water surface to rainfalls and its effect on radar backscattering
  • Breaking waves, wind and surfactants
  • Image processing with deep (machine) learning
  • Low-frequency gravity waves in shoaling water

        Ph. D. University of Maryland, 2002

Selected Publications:

  1. Zhao B., W. Yang, C. Zheng, Y. Pei, A. Malatesta, X. Liu and B. Yang, 2021, Experimental study of heat transfer by using textile flap oscillation, Heat amd Mass Transfer, Vol. 57.
  2. Wang S., Y. Guo, W. Hua, X. Liu, G. Song, B. Hou and L. Jiao, 2020, Semi-supervised PolSAR image classification based on improved tri-training with a minimum spanning tree, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2020.2988982.
  3. M. A. Erinin, S. D. Wang, R. Liu, D. Towle, X. Liu and J. H. Duncan, 2019, Spray generation by a plunging breaker,  Geophyiscal Research Letters. VOL. 46, No. 14, (
  4. Editor's Highlights
  5. Liu X., A. Wang, S. Wang and D. Dai, 2018, Effects of wind on the dynamics of the central jet during drop impact onto a deep-water surface, Phys. Rev. Fluids 3, 053602,
  6. Liu X., 2018, Experimental study of drop impact on deep-water surface in the presence of wind, Journal of Physical Oceanography, Vol. 48 (2), 329-341,
  7. Liu X., Q. Zheng, R. Liu, M., Sletten and J. H. Duncan, 2017, A model of radar backscatter of rain-generated stalks on the ocean surface, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 55 (2), 767-776, doi:10.1109/TGRS.2016.2614897.
  8. Liu X., 2016, A Laboratory study of spilling breakers in the presence of light-wind and surfactants, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. Vol. 121, 1846-1865, doi:10.1002/2015JC011200.
  9. Liu X., Q. Zheng, R. Liu, D. Wang, J. H. Duncan and S. J. Huang, 2016, A study of radar backscattering from water surface in responseto rainfall, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. Vol. 121, 1546-1562, doi:10.1002/2015JC010975. (Editor's Highlights: The Unique Radar Signature of Rain Falling on Water by Mark Zastrow)
  10. Zhang, Q., Q. Zhao, Y. Yuan, X. Liu, J. Hu, X. Liu, L. Yin and X. Ye, 2012, Shear-flow induced secondary circulation in parallel underwater topographic corrugation and Its application to satellite image interpretation, Journal of Ocean University of China, Vol. 11, No. 4, 427-435.
  11. Zheng, Q., B. Holt, X. Li, X. Liu, Q. Zhao, Y. Yuan and X. Yang, 2012, Deep-water seamount wakes on SEASAT SAR images in the Gulf Stream region, Geophyiscal Research Letters. VOL. 39, L16604, 6 PP., doi:10.1029/2012GL052661.
  12. Liu X., W. Lin, and P. Huang, 2010, A laboratory study of low-frequency waves induced by random gravity waves on sloping beaches, Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering. Vol. 135, No.3, 127-134.
  13. J. Diorio, X. Liu and J. H. Duncan, 2009, An experimental investigation of incipient spilling breakers. J. Fluid Mech., Vol. 633, pp 271-283.
  14. Liu X., J. Diorio and J. H. Duncan, 2008, Spilling breakers and surfactants, Phys. Fluids, Vol. 20, 091103; DOI:10.1063/1.2973459.
  15. Liu X. and J. H. Duncan, 2007, Weakly breaking waves in the presence of surfactant micelles, Physical Review E, Vol. 76, No. 6, 061201.
  16. Liu X., J. H. Duncan, G. M. Korenowski and J. S. Kelly, 2007, A laboratory study of longitudinal waves in surfactant films in a water wave tank, Journal of Geophysics Research. Vol. 112, C06005.
  17. Liu X. and J. H. Duncan, 2006, An experimental study of surfactant effects on spilling breakers, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 567, 433-455.
  18. Zhang S., Q. Zheng and X. Liu, 2004, Finite element analysis of suction penetration seepage field of bucket foundation platform with application to offshore oilfield development, Ocean Engineering, Vol. 31, 1591-1599.
  19. Liu. X and J. H. Duncan, 2003, The effect of surfactants on spilling breaking waves, Nature, Vol.421, 520-523.
  20. Sletten M.A., J. C. West, X. Liu, and J. H. Duncan, 2003, Radar investigations of breaking water waves at low grazing angles with simultaneous high-speed optical imagery,  Radio Science, Vol. 38, No.6, 1110, doi:10.1029/2002RS002716.
  21. Liu. X and J. H. Duncan, 2003, The generation of micro-jets in spilling breakers in the presence of surfactants, Physics of Fluids, Vol. 15, No. 9, S11.
  22. Huang P., X. Chen and X. Liu, 1999, The statistical distribution of heights of random non-breaking shoaling sea waves, J. of Oceanography of Huanghai and Bohai Seas, Vol.17, No.1, 1-6.
  23. Liu X., J. Cui, W. Wang and Y. Yang, 1999, A field experimental investigation of tracer sand motion in a coral reef coast during the occurrence of a tropical storm, Oceanologica et Limnologia Sinica, Vol.29, No.1. 315-320.
  24. Huang P., X. Chen, X. Liu, and Z. Hu, 1998, Probability distributions of surface elevations of random non-breaking shoaling sea waves, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, Vol.21, No.1.  17-22.
  25. Liu X. and P. Huang, 1998, A nonlinear model for non-breaking shoaling random waves, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, Vol.17, No.2. 155-165.
  26. Liu X. and P. Huang, 1997, A new model for nonlinear random waves, Oceanologica et Limnologia Sinica, Vol.28, No.5. 310-314.
  27. Liu X. and P. Huang, 1995, Study on method of numerical simulation of nonlinear random waves, Chinese. J. Oceanol. Limnol., Vol.12, No.3. 206-214.
  28. Liu X. and P. Huang, 1993.The retrieval of nonlinear random waves from the non-Gaussian characteristics of sea surface elevation distributions, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, Vol.12, No.4. 499-510.
  29. Huang P, X. Liu and Z. Hu , 1992. The force of wind waves acting on a vertical breakwater, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, Vol.14, No.6. 199-131.
  30. Liu X. and P. Huang, 1991, A computation of shallow water wave spectrum under shoaling effects. J. of Huanghai Sea and Bohai Sea, Vol.9, No.4. 1-9.
  31. Liu X. and P. Huang, 1991, Numerical simulation of non-Gaussian process of wind waves, Acta Oceanologica Sinica, Vol.10, No.2. 199-216.