Webster, D. M., & Kruglanski, A. W. (1994). Individual differences in need for

    cognitive closure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67,


Introduces an individual-difference measure of the need for cognitive closure. As a dispositional construct, the need for cognitive closure is presently treated as a latent variable manifested through several different aspects, namely, desire for predictability, preference for order and structure, discomfort with ambiguity, decisiveness, and close-mindedness. This article presents psychometric work on the measure as well as several validation studies including (1) a "known-groups" discrimination between populations assumed to differ in their need for closure, (2) discriminant and convergent validation with respect to related personality measures, and (3) replication of effects obtained with situational inductions of the need for closure. The present findings suggest that the Need for Closure Scale is a reliable and valid instrument of considerable potential utility in future "motivated social cognition" research.