In this standard inverting amplifier configuration, the arrows show the direction
of current flow. The voltage across the input resistor R1 is equal to
because the right end of R1 (the - input of the op amp)
is virtually at ground potential).
This generates a current Vin/R1
This current flows almost entirely through the feedback resistor
that into the operational amplifier inputs, because the voltage
- and + inputs of the op amp is very small (typically microvolts) and the
resistance between the inputs (the differential input resistance) is large
(typically megohms). The current (Vin/R1) flowing
through R2 generates a voltage equal to
Thus the gain of the circuit is -R2/R1.
Note that the current flowing into the op amp (the differential input
current) is vanishingly
small compared to the current flowing through the resistors.
Also, note that the
differential input voltage is very small compared to
the other voltages. That's why we say that the top (-) input of the op and is
at "virtual ground".
You can change the values of R1 and R2,
input resistance (typically 1 to 100 Megohm), and the
typically 50000 to 200000). Just click on the value with the mouse pointer and
edit like any text field.
This page is maintained by Prof. T. C. O'Haver , Department of Chemistry and
Biochemistry, The University of Maryland at College Park.
Comments, suggestions and questions should be directed to
Prof. O'Haver at email@example.com.
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