PinYin and BoPoMoFo ZhuYin Equivalence


There is a straight one-to-one correspondence between ZhuYin (BoPoMoFo) and PinYin (Chinese Romanization), with the few exceptions listed at the end of the next table. Despite the usually emotionally charged arguments (usually by those who do not bother to take the time to understand the differences across the Taiwan Strait), it is just a matter of choice of symbols to represent the many sounds in Chinese. In the following table, BoPoMoFo are coded in Big5 (because BoPoMoFo is not used in mainland China; thus, the corresponding GB coding does not contain these symbols). The table below lists the 37 BoPoMoFo phonetic symbols, along with the corresponding romanized equivalents. The first half are the consonants and the second half are the vowels. Note that , , and can be both, and the corresponding PinYin are different.

Consonants
t bu pv mw f
x dy tz n{ l
| g} k~ h
j q x
zh ch sh r
z c s
y w yu
Vowels
i u u, u:
a o e e, e^
ai ei au ou
an en ang eng
er, r

Exceptions for some vowels (but not consonants):

One more exception to the rule for ZhuYin symbols that can stand alone: The above are all the rules and exceptions to the rules. Period. Lastly, we indicate the tone by appending 1, 2, 3, 4, or 0 (e.g., wang2 nan2 xin1, which is my name).

The following table contains a complete set of all valid sounds in Mandarin, and BoPoMoFo, pinyin, etc. are the different ways of expressing the various sounds. The Big5 and GB characters in the table are only representative characters with that pronunciation. Many Chinese characters share an identical pronunciation. Conversely, there are sometimes multiple pronunciations for the same character. Note that many combinations of the consonants and vowels (e.g., "bui") are missing in Mandarin Chinese, unless you speak with a very strange accent or unless you are imitating the sounds of animals. One single font will not display the next table correctly; you need to switch fonts to view this page in Big5 (present setting), GB, and HZ codes (which you accomplish, for example, in Internet Explorer through the menu |View|Encoding|.

Big5GBHZZhuYinPinYinWadeYale
_ A A A
s~{0'~} Ai Ai Ai
w~{02~} An An An
~{09~} Ang Ang Ang
_ Ao Ao Ao
K~{0K~}t Ba Pa Ba
~{0W~}t Bai Pai Bai
~{0b~}t Ban Pan Ban
~{0n~}t Bang Pang Bang
]~{0|~}t Bao Pao Bau
~{10~}t Bei Pei Bei
b~{1<~}t Ben Pen Ben
Y~{1@~}t Beng Peng Beng
G~{1F~}t Bi Pi Bi
s~{1`~}tBian Pien Byan
C~{1k~}tBiao Piao Byau
ž~{1n~}tBie Pieh Bye
l~{1r~}tBin Pin Bin
B~{1y~}tBing Ping Bing
i~{2(~}t Bo Po Bwo
~{2;~}t Bu Pu Bu
~{2A~} Ca Ts'a Tsa
q~{2B~} Cai Ts'ai Tsai
~{2N~} Can Ts'an Tsan
~{2V~} Cang Ts'ang Tsang
~{2Y~} Cao Ts'ao Tsau
U~{2a~} Ce Ts'e Tse
~{a/~} Cen Ts'en Tsen
~{Tx~} Ceng Ts'eng Tseng
e~{2f~} Cha Ch'a Cha
~{2p~} Chai Ch'ai Chai
U~{2t~} Chan Ch'an Chan
~{2}~} Chang Ch'ang Chang
n~{33~} Chao Ch'ao Chau
~{35~} Che Ch'e Che
`~{h!~} Chen Ch'en Chen
~{3F~} Cheng Ch'eng Cheng
Y~{3T~} Chi Ch'ih Chr
R~{3d~}Chong Ch'ung Chung
~{3i~} Chou Ch'ou Chou
X~{3v~} Chu Ch'u Chu
~{4'~}Chuai Ch'uai Chwai
t~{4(~}Chuan Ch'uan Chwan
~{44~}ChuangCh'uangChwang
j~{45~}Chui Ch'ui Chwei
K~{4:~}Chun Ch'un Chwun
~{4B~}Chuo Ch'o Chwo
~{4C~} Ci Tz'u Tsz
^~{4R~}Cong Ts'ung Tsung
~{4V~} Cu Ts'u Tsu
«~{4\~}Cuan Ts'uan Tswan
Z~{4^~}Cui Ts'ui Tswei
~{4e~}Cun Ts'un Tswun
~{4i~}Cuo Ts'o Tswo
~{4p~}x Da Ta Da
b~{4t~}x Dai Tai Dai
~{5$~}x Dan Tan Dan
~{51~}x Dang Tang Dang
M~{56~}x Dao Tao Dau
o~{5C~}x De Te De
o~{5C~}x Dei Tei Dei
n~{5G~}x Deng Teng Deng
C~{5M~}x Di Ti Di
~{5a~}xDian Tien Dyan
N~{5s~}xDiao Tiao Dyau
R~{5y~}xDie Tieh Dye
B~{6!~}xDing Ting Ding
~{6*~}xDiu Tiu Dyou
V~{6,~}xDong Tung Dung
~{65~}x Dou Tou Dou
~{6=~}x Du Tu Du
~{6K~}xDuan Tuan Dwan
~{6Q~}xDui Tui Dwei
~{6X~}xDun Tun Dwun
h~{6`~}xDuo To Dwo
M_ E E E
Z~{6p~} E E E
M_ Ei Ei Ei
~{6w~} En En En
_ Eng Eng Eng
~{6y~} Er Erh Er
~{7%~}w Fa Fa Fa
~{74~}w Fan Fan Fan
~{7=~}w Fang Fang Fang
m~{ez~}w Fei Fei Fei
~{7V~}w Fen Fen Fen
~{7a~}w Feng Feng Feng
~{7p~}w Fo Fo Fwo
B~{8!~}w Fou Fou Fou
~{FM~}w Fu Fu Fu
~{^N~}| Ga Ka Ga
~{[r~}| Gai Kai Gai
z~{8I~}| Gan Kan Gan
~{?:~}| Gang Kang Gang
~{8_~}| Gao Kao Gau
~{8j~}| Ge Ke Ge
~{8x~}| Gei Kei Gei
~{8y~}| Gen Ken Gen
~{8{~}| Geng Keng Geng
u~{9$~}|Gong Kung Gung
~{94~}| Gou Kou Gou
~{9@~}| Gu Ku Gu
~{9O~}|Gua Kua Gwa
~{9T~}|Guai Kuai Gwai
x~{9Y~}|Guan Kuan Gwan
~{9b~}|Guang Kuang Gwang
c~{9g~}|Gui Kuei Gwei
u~{9v~}|Gun Kun Gwun
~{9y~}|Guo Kuo Gwo
~{9~~}~ Ha Ha Ha
~{:"~}~ Hai Hai Hai
o~{:(~}~ Han Han Han
q~{:;~}~ Hang Hang Hang
~{:>~}~ Hao Hao Hau
~{:G~}~ He He He
~{:Z~}~ Hei Hei Hei
~{:[~}~ Hen Hen Hen
~{:`~}~ Heng Heng Heng
~{:e~}~Hong Hung Hung
J~{:n~}~ Hou Hou Hou
G~{:u~}~ Hu Hu Hu
~{;/~}~Hua Hua Hwa
~{;2~}~Huai Huai Hwai
w~{;6~}~Huan Huan Hwan
w~{kA~}~Huang Huang Hwang
~{;R~}~Hui Hui Hwei
~{;h~}~Hun Hun Hwun
~{;m~}~Huo Huo Hwo
L~{<8~} Ji Chi Ji
[~{Jia Chia Jya
l~{Jian Chien Jyan
~{=-~}Jiang Chiang Jyang
~{=;~}Jiao Chiao Jyau
~{=T~}Jie Chieh Jye
y~{=m~}Jin Chin Jin
~{>)~}Jing Ching Jing
~~{>=~}Jiong Chiung Jyung
E~{>E~}Jiu Chiu Jyou
~~{>S~} Ju Chu: Jyu
S~{>j~}Juan Chuan: Jywan
n~{f^~}Jue Chueh: Jywe
g~{>}~}Jun Chun: Jyun
d~{?(~}} Ka K'a Ka
}~{?*~}} Kai K'ai Kai
Z~{?/~}} Kan K'an Kan
d~{?5~}} Kang K'ang Kang
~{?<~}} Kao K'ao Kau
~{?L~}} Ke K'e Ke
~{?O~}} Ken K'en Ken
|~{?S~}} Keng K'eng Keng
~{?U~}}Kong K'ung Kung
f~{?Z~}} Kou K'ou Kou
\~{?]~}} Ku K'u Ku
j~{?d~}}Kua K'ua Kwa
~{?l~}}Kuai K'uai Kwai
e~{?m~}}Kuan K'uan Kwan
J~{?o~}}Kuang K'uang Kwang
~{?x~}}Kui K'uei Kwei
[~{@$~}}Kun K'un Kwun
A~{@(~}}Kuo K'uo Kwo
~{@-~}{ La La La
~{@4~}{ Lai Lai Lai
~{@7~}{ Lan Lan Lan
~{@I~}{ Lang Lang Lang
~{@L~}{ Lao Lao Lau
~{@U~}{ Le Le Le
\~{@a~}{ Lei Lei Lei
h~{c6~}{ Leng Leng Leng
~{A(~}{ Li Li Li
~{A)~}{Lia Lia Lya
s~{A,~}{Lian Lien Lyan
}~{A<~}{Liang Liang Lyang
~{AC~}{Liao Liao Lyau
~{_V~}{Lie Lieh Lye
L~{AV~}{Lin Lin Lin
O~{An~}{Ling Ling Ling
~{Ao~}{Liu Liu Lyou
¡~{B!~}{Long Lung Lung
O§~{B'~}{ Lou Lou Lou
c¬~{B,~}{ Lu Lu Lu
r~{BM~}{Luan Luan Lwan
~{BS~}{Lue: Lueh: Lywe
~{BU~}{Lun Lun Lwun
o~{B^~}{Luo Luo Lwo
~{Bh~}v Ma Ma Ma
I~{Bq~}v Mai Mai Mai
O~{r)~}v Man Man Man
æ~{C&~}v Mang Mang Mang
è~{C(~}v Mao Mao Mau
Sû~{C;~}v Mei Mei Mei
e~{CF~}v Men Men Men
é~{CI~}v Meng Meng Meng
}~{_d~}v Mi Mi Mi
v~{C_~}vMian Mien Myan
p~{_w~}vMiao Miao Myau
~{XB~}vMie Mieh Mye
~{Cq~}vMin Min Min
W~{C{~}vMing Ming Ming
~{C}~}vMiu Miu Myou
N~{C~~}v Mo Mo Mwo
IJ~{D2~}v Mou Mou Mou
ľ~{D>~}v Mu Mu Mu
~{DG~}z Na Na Na
D~{DK~}z Nai Nai Nai
k~{DP~}z Nan Nan Nan
n~{DR~}z Nang Nang Nang
o~{DU~}z Nao Nao Nau
~{DZ~}z Nei Nei Nei
~{D\~}z Neng Neng Neng
~{Da~}z Ni Ni Ni
~~{Dj~}zNian Nien Nyan
Q~{Do~}zNiang Niang Nyang
~{Dq~}zNiao Niao Nyau
~{Ds~}zNie Nieh Nye
z~{Dz~}zNin Nin Nin
~{D~~}zNing Ning Ning
ţ~{E#~}zNiu Niu Nyou
Aũ~{E)~}zNong Nung Nung
~{qq~}zNou Nou Nou
ū~{E+~}z Nu Nu Nu
kŮ~{E.~}z Nu: Nu: Nyu
xů~{E/~}zNuan Nuan Nwan
hŰ~{E0~}zNue: Nueh: Nywe
Ų~{E2~}zNuo No Nwo
ż~{E<~} Ou Ou Ou
~{0E~}u Pa P'a Pa
~{ED~}u Pai P'ai Pai
~{EK~}u Pan P'an Pan
~{ER~}u Pang P'ang Pang
~{EW~}u Pao P'ao Pau
~{;5~}u Pei P'ei Pei
Q~{Eg~}u Pen P'en Pen
B~{Es~}u Peng P'eng Peng
ƥ~{F%~}u Pi P'i Pi
Ƭ~{F,~}uPian P'ien Pyan
Ʊ~{F1~}uPiao P'iao Pyau
JƲ~{F2~}uPie P'ieh Pye
~{^U~}uPin P'in Pin
ƹ~{F9~}uPing P'ing Ping
Y~{FB~}u Po P'o Pwo
~{FJ~}u Pou P'ou Pou
~{FM~}u Pu P'u Pu
C~{F_~} Qi Ch'i Chi
t~{F~~}Qia Ch'ia Chya
dǧ~{G'~}Qian Ch'ien Chyan
Ǽ~{G<~}Qiang Ch'iangChyang
~{GD~}Qiao Ch'iao Chyau
~{GP~}Qie Ch'ieh Chye
I~{GV~}Qin Ch'in Chin
C~{G`~}Qing Ch'ing Ching
~{q7~}Qiong Ch'iungChyung
C~{Gp~}Qiu Ch'iu Chyou
~{Gz~} Qu Ch'u: Chyu
Ȧ~{H&~}Quan Ch'uan:Chywan
ȱ~{H1~}Que Ch'ueh:Chywe
sȺ~{H:~}Qun Ch'un: Chyun
MȻ~{H;~} Ran Jan Ran
W~{HB~} Rang Jang Rang
c~{f,~} Rao Jao Rau
~{HH~} Re Je Re
H~{HK~} Ren Jen Ren
~{HS~} Reng Jeng Reng
~{HU~} Ri Jih R
~{HV~}Rong Jung Rung
X~{Ha~} Rou Jou Rou
p~{Hg~} Ru Ju Ru
~{Hn~}Ruan Juan Rwan
~{Hp~}Rui Jui Rwei
|~{Hr~}Run Jun Rwun
Y~{Ht~}Ruo Jo Rwo
ئ~{X&~} Sa Sa Sa
~{H{~} Sai Sai Sai
T~{H}~} San San San
ɣ~{I#~} Sang Sang Sang
kɦ~{I&~} Sao Sao Sau
ɫ~{I+~} Se Se Se
ɭ~{I-~} Sen Sen Sen
ɮ~{I.~} Seng Seng Seng
Fɳ~{I3~} Sha Sha Sha
ɹ~{I9~} Shai Shai Shai
sɽ~{I=~} Shan Shan Shan
~{IL~} Shang Shang Shang
~{IS~} Shao Shao Shau
~{I]~} She She She
˭~{K-~} Shei Shei Shei
~{Ij~} Shen Shen Shen
~{I}~} Sheng Sheng Sheng
rʬ~{J,~} Shi Shih Shr
~{JU~} Shou Shou Shou
~{Ji~} Shu Shu Shu
ˢ~{K"~}Shua Shua Shwa
I˥~{K%~}Shuai Shuai Shwai
C˩~{K)~}Shuan Shuan Shwan
˪~{K*~}ShuangShuang Shwang
˭~{K-~}Shui Shui Shwei
m˱~{K1~}Shun Shun Shwun
˵~{K5~}Shuo Shuo Shwo
q˾~{K>~} Si Ssu Sz
Q~{bl~}Song Sung Sung
~{[E~} Sou Sou Sou
~{Jh~} Su Su Su
~{Ka~}Suan Suan Swan
~{Kd~}Sui Sui Swei
]~{Ko~}Sun Sun Swun
~{Kt~}Suo So Swo
L~{K{~}y Ta T'a Ta
x̨~{L(~}y Tai T'ai Tai
~̮~{L.~}y Tan T'an Tan
~{L@~}y Tang T'ang Tang
~{LR~}y Tao T'ao Tau
S~{LX~}y Te T'e Te
~{LZ~}y Teng T'eng Teng
~{L^~}y Ti T'i Ti
~{Ll~}yTian T'ien Tyan
٬~{Y,~}yTiao T'iao Tyau
~{L{~}yTie T'ieh Tye
ť~{L}~}yTing T'ing Ting
Pͬ~{M,~}yTong T'ung Tung
͵~{M5~}y Tou T'ou Tou
rͺ~{M:~}y Tu T'u Tu
~{ME~}yTuan T'uan Twan
~{MF~}yTui T'ui Twei
]~{ML~}yTun T'un Twun
٢~{Y"~}yTuo T'o Two
~{M^~} Wa Wa Wa
n~{Ma~} Wai Wai Wai
~{X`~} Wan Wan Wan
`~{Mv~} Wang Wang Wang
eί~{N/~} Wei Wei Wei
~{ND~} Wen Wen Wen
~{NL~} Weng Weng Weng
~{YA~} Wo O O
d~{[X~} Wu Wu Wu
~{Yb~} Xi Hsi Xyi
Xϻ~{O;~}Xia Hsia Sya
P~{OI~}Xian Hsien Syan
~{O`~}Xiang Hsiang Syang
d~{Ow~}Xiao Hsiao Syau
Щ~{P)~}Xie Hsieh Sye
~{PD~}Xin Hsin Syin
P~{PG~}Xing Hsin Sying
~{PW~}Xiong Hsiung Syung
~{P]~}Xiu Hsiu Syou
}~{Pl~} Xu Hsu: Syu
~{P{~}Xuan Hsuan: Sywan
uѥ~{Q%~}Xue Hsueh: Sywe
ѫ~{Q+~}Xun Hsun: Syun
XѾ~{Q>~} Ya Ya Ya
a~{QY~} Yan Yan Yan
~{Qk~} Yang Yang Yang
Ң~{R"~} Yao Yao Yau
]ҹ~{R9~} Ye Yeh Ye
@һ~{R;~} Yi I Yi
]~{Rr~} Yin Yin Yin
^Ӣ~{S"~} Ying Ying Ying
o~{g_~} Yong Yung Yung
~{X|~} You Yu You
~{SX~} Yu Yu: Yu
Ԫ~{T*~} Yuan Yuan: Ywan
~{TB~} Yue Yueh: Ywe
w~{TN~} Yun Yun: Yun
`~{TQ~} Za Tsa Dza
a~{TV~} Zai Tsai Dzai
¯~{t"~} Zan Tsan Dzan
N~{j0~} Zang Tsang Dzang
D~{Tb~} Zao Tsao Dzau
h~{Tr~} Ze Tse Dze
~{Tt~} Zei Tsei Dzei
~{Tu~} Zen Tsen Dzen
~{Tx~} Zeng Tseng Dzeng
~{Tz~} Zha Cha Ja
Kժ~{U*~} Zhai Chai Jai
eռ~{U<~} Zhan Chan Jan
i~{UE~} Zhang Chang Jang
l~{UY~} Zhao Chao Jau
B~{UZ~} Zhe Che Je
~{Ud~} Zhen Chen Jen
~{U}~} Zheng Cheng Jeng
֮~{V.~} Zhi Chih Jr
~{VP~}Zhong Chung Jung
{~{V]~} Zhou Chou Jou
~{Vl~} Zhu Chu Ju
ץ~{W%~}Zhua Chua Jwa
ק~{W'~}Zhuai Chuai Jwai
Mר~{W(~}Zhuan Chuan Jwan
ױ~{W1~}ZhuangChuang Jwang
A~{v?~}Zhui Chui Jwei
׼~{W<~}Zhun Chun Jwun
׿~{W?~}Zhuo Cho Jwo
l~{WS~} Zi Tzu Dz
v~{WZ~}Zong Tsung Dzung
Q~{W^~} Zou Tsou Dzou
~{Wb~} Zu Tsu Dzu
p~{Wj~}Zuan Tsuan Dzwan
L~{Wl~}Zui Tsui Dzwei
L~{Wp~}Zun Tsun Dzwun
@~{Ww~}Zuo Tso Dzwo

Additional Points

The above table deals with the phonetic symbols employed to represent the Chinese pronunciation of a character. This is analogous to the many different schemes used in English dictionaries to represent pronunciation (long vowels, short consonants, etc). As we can see from the above table, there are many methods (and many more are not listed above). The most common ones are pinyin (China) and BoPoMoFo (Taiwan). The purpose of this web page is to demonstrate the nearly one-to-one correspondence between these two methods. Personally, I prefer the pinyin method, because I already know my alphabets. Why waste time learning another set of phonetic symbols, especially when they are so nearly equivalent?

Big5 vs. GB Because of the political division of China, there are two major coding schemes: Big5 (mainly in Taiwan) and GB (mainly in mainland China). Do not confuse Big5/GB with the BoPoMoFo/pinyin phonetic representation. The coding scheme is simply a way to represent a character with a number, much like how we represent an alphabet with a number with the ASCII scheme, e.g., 65 for the letter "A". Both coding schemes are based on 4 bytes ( 32 bits) per character. For example, the character of my last name is represented with different numerical values in different coding schemes: Big5, GB (and, for that matter, Japanese, or Korean).

Big5|GB vs. Unicode|HZ To make the matter worse, there exist many coding schemes other than just Big5 and GB. At one time, every Chinese software company seemed to advocate its own proprietary coding scheme. Another fairly common coding scheme, although not as popular as Big5 or GB, is HZ. Then there is Unicode, which is used to express characters/letters of not just Chinese Mandarin, but all sorts of languages, Asian and European alike; thus, the Unicode coding system contains Chinese characters along with many non-Chinsese characters.

Traditional vs. Simplified Style. A completely separate idea (not to be confused with phonetic representation or coding schemes) is the traditional style (which has more strokes for certain characters, favored in Taiwan) versus the simplified style (favored in China). The styles are analogous to different fonts in the US, much like how my wingdings font and my courier font display two different symbols for the same alphabet "A".

Input Method. Another yet completely different concept is the input method. Because the English-based keyboard is what we normally see in the US, we need to adopt that to Chinese. There are many input methods for picking out a specific Chinese character -- I am aware of at least 15 such methods. One of these is pinyin, where you simply type in the alphabet (which I think is the simplest because I am comfortable with typing English with a US keyboard). For example, I would type "w" "a" "n" "g"; about 15 characters pop up on my screen; and I pick out the character that corresponds to my last name. The BoPoMoFo method is similar in that each key maps into a phonetic symbol. There are many mappings for BoPoMoFo, one such mapping is shown here. There are sufficient number of keys on a US keyboard for each of the 37 BoPoMoFo phonetic symbols. Other input methods are based on pronunciation in other dialects (such as Cantonese, rather than Mandarin), radicals (bu4shou3), number of strokes, the type of strokes at four corners of the character (si4jiao3hao4ma3), the shape of the character (cang1jie2), ..., even English equivalent. For example, my last name translates to "king" in English; thus, when I employ the last input method, I type "king" on my US keyboard; a number of Chinese characters or phrases that correspond to "king" in meaning pop up on my screen; and I choose the correct one. As for me -- well, I hardly ever type in Chinese -- but when I do, I do most of my input with pinyin. Without exception, everyone I know who masters both BoPoMoFo and pinyin prefers pinyin, just like myself. I occasionally switch to other methods, when I, for example, do not know the pronunciation of the character that I am trying to type.

Directionality. Western languages are written in horizontal lines left-to-right. However, certain languages (such as Hebrew and Arabic) are written in horizontal lines right-to-left. Chinese languages (and those with a strong Chinese influence such as Japanese and Korean) are traditionally written in vertical lines (top-to-bottom) arranged right-to-left. However, this tradition is not commonly practiced today. China has long changed the directionality to be in line with the Western practice (i.e., horizontal lines left-to-right). However, many Taiwanese publications seem to follow no rules. It is typical to see top-to-bottom, right-to-left, and left-to-right conventions all coexist on the same page in a newspaper. This can cause serious confusions, especially when the phrases are sufficiently short such that both directions make perfect sense, but convey completely different meanings. For example, with my name read in an opposite direction, I become another equally plausible person: a new Southern King, which of course I am not.

There are many permutations of the above concepts. To make the matter worse, there are people who mix already messy Chinese schemes with other languages that also employ Chinese characters (such as Japanese and Korean). Such is the sad state of things when a country that should be united remains divided, and ordinary folks like I pay for the resulting chaos. I wrote this web page in an attempt to reduce such misunderstandings.


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PinYin and BoPoMoFo ZhuYin Equivalence

Forward comments to:
Nam Sun Wang
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Maryland
College Park, MD 20742-2111
301-405-1910 (voice)
301-314-9126 (FAX)
e-mail: nsw@eng.umd.edu ©1999 by Nam Sun Wang
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