If rhetoric is central to community, morality, and practical reason,
then the next question is: How healthy is this dimension of human life?
Not healthy, answers Jürgen Habermas. The diagnosis and the cure are
an object of study.
The heart of Habermas' critique lies in his concept of legitimacy --
patterns of discourse must underlie a public identity which guides relationships
of public life. In doing so, his work contrasts with those who see themselves
as political scientists, and most sociologists of our century who
view public life in terms of structures and institutions. At the same time
there is a second reorientation involved here which connects "public"
more broadly than to government. Government is merely a particular solution
to the public problem. Typically today politics is viewed as a subject
of study in social contexts from the family to the office to the nation-state.
Viewed this way, problems of social identity are fundamentally problems
in our rhetoric. This opens up so many new ways of thinking about social
relationships and political communication that the studies are practically
reinvented. The diagnosis has now crossed from the academic to the public
media. Laments for the low state of public discourse are a part of editorial
pages and talk shows. It is a part of the same movement.
Given the locating of the problem in the quality of discourse, the theoretical
issues which follow have to do with the preconditions and praxis of a satisfactory
public discourse. Habermas' approach to addressing this problem has been
markedly different from American approaches. You will read both. The European
reading will be difficult because of the vocabulary and theoretical differences.
Work through it carefully.
Awad, Sabel. "Critical Multiculturalism and Deliberative Democracy: Opening Spaces for more Inclusive Communication." Javnost-The Public 18, no. 3 (2011): 39-54.
Baek, Young Min, Magdalena Wojcieszak, and Michael X. Delli Carpini. "Online versus face-to-face deliberation: Who? Why? What? With what effects?." New Media & Society 14, no. 3 (2012): 363-383.
Balnaves, Mark, Tama Leaver, and Michele Willson. "Habermas and the Net." Conference Papers -- International Communication Association (2010 Annual Meeting 2010): 1.
Baym, Nancy K., and danah boyd. "Socially Mediated Publicness: An Introduction."Journal Of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 56, no. 3 (July 2012): 320-329.
Breese, Elizabeth Butler. "Mapping the Variety of Public Spheres." Communication Theory 21, no. 2 (2011): 130-149.
Brouwer, Daniel C. and Robert Asen. Public Modalities: Rhetoric, Culture, Media, and the Shape of Public Life. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2010.
Brundidge, Jennifer. "Political Discussion And News Use in the Contemporary Public Sphere: The ‘Accessibility’ AND "Traversability" of the Internet." Javnost-The Public 17, no. 2 (2010): 63-81.
Campbell, Scott W., and Nojin Kwak. "Mobile communication and strong network ties: Shrinking or expanding spheres of public discourse?." New Media & Society 14, no. 2 (March 2012): 262-280.
Chavez, Karma R. "Counter-Public Enclaves and Understanding the Function of Rhetoric in Social Movement Coalition-Building." Communication Quarterly 59, no. 1 (2011): 1-18.
Coleman, Stephen. "It’s Time for the Public to Reclaim to the Public Interest."Television & New Media 13, no. 1 (2012): 7-11.
Cuceu, Codruţa. “Milestones in the Critique of the Public Sphere: Dewey and Arendt.” Journal for Communication & Culture, Issue 2 (2011), 99-110.
Deem, Melissa. "Radical Politics, Minor Polemics and the Transfiguration of Public Forms." Conference Proceedings -- National Communication Association/American Forensic Association (Alta Conference On Argumentation) (January 2010): 60-66.
Dehesa, Rafael de la. Queering the Public Sphere in Mexico and Brazil: Sexual Rights Movements in Emerging Democracies. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010.
Dolber, Brian. "From Socialism to 'Sentiment': Toward a Political Economy of Communities, Counterpublics, and Their Media Through Jewish Working Class History."Communication Theory (10503293) 21, no. 1 (2011): 90-109.
Drew, Julie, William Lyons, and Lance Svehla. Sound-bite saboteurs: public discourse, education, and the state of democratic deliberation. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2010.
el-Nawawy, Mohammed, and Sahar Khamis. "Political Blogging and (Re) Envisioning the Virtual Public Sphere: Muslim— Christian Discourses in Two Egyptian Blogs."International Journal Of Press/Politics 16, no. 2 (2011): 234-253.
Fortner, Robert S., Mark Fackler, and Clifford G. Christians. Ethics & evil in the public sphere: media, universal values & global development : Essays in Honor of Clifford G. Christians. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press (2010).
Galily, Yair, Ilan Tamir, and Ofer Muchtar. "The Sport-Blogging Community and the Public Sphere: An Israeli Perspective." Journal For Communication & Culture 2, no. 1 (June 2012): 68-87.
Gerhards, Jürgen, and Mike S. Schäfer. "Is the internet a better public sphere? Comparing old and new media in the USA and Germany." New Media & Society 12, no. 1 (February 2010): 143-160.
Goldberg, Greg. "Rethinking the public/virtual sphere: The problem with participation." New Media & Society 13, no. 5 (August 2011): 739-754.
Hansen, Ejvind. "Actuvirtuality in the Internet-Mediated Political Public Sphere." At The Interface / Probing The Boundaries 73 (December 2010): 27-46.
- Knobloch, Katherine R. "Public Sphere Alienation: A Model For Analysis and Critique." Javnost-The Public 18, no. 4 (December 2011): 21-38.
Livingston, Alexander. "Avoiding Deliberative Democracy? Micropolitics, Manipulation, and the Public Sphere." Philosophy & Rhetoric 45, no. 3 (August 2012): 269-294.
Mitman, Tyson, Alexander Nikolaev, and Douglas Porpora. "The Critical Moral Voice on American Newspaper Opinion Pages." Communication, Culture & Critique 5, no. 3 (September 2012): 392-408
Papacharissi, Zizi. A Private Sphere: Democracy in a Digital Age. Cambridge: Polity, 2010.
Randall, David. "The Prudential Public Sphere." Philosophy & Rhetoric 44, no. 3 (August 2011): 205-226
Reinelt, Janelle. “Rethinking the Public Sphere for a Global Age.” Performance Research: A Journal of the Performing Arts 16, no. 2 (2011): 16-27
- Rishel, Nicole M. "Digitizing Deliberation." Administrative Theory & Praxis (M.E. Sharpe) 33, no. 3 (2011): 411-432.
- Self, Charles C. "Hegel, Habermas, and Community: The Public in the New Media Era." International Journal Of Strategic Communication 4, no. 2 (March 2010): 78-92.
- Shaw, Frances. "The Politics of Blogs: Theories of Discursive Activism Online." Media International Australia (8/1/07-Current) 142 (February 2012): 41-49.
- Simone, Maria A. "Deliberative Democracy Online: Bridging Networks With Digital Technologies." Communication Review 13, no. 2 (April 2010): 120-139.
- Singletary, Kimberly Alecia. "A Flexible Art: Re-imagining Goodnight's Public, Private, and Technical Spheres Through the Lens of the Internet." Conference Proceedings -- National Communication Association/American Forensic Association (Alta Conference On Argumentation) (January 2010): 461-467.
- Smith, William. "Civil Disobedience and the Public Sphere." Journal Of Political Philosophy 19, no. 2 (2011): 145-166.
- * Ţuţui, Viorel. "How Should We Deliberate? Between the Argumentative and the Representative Dimensions of Democratic Deliberation." Argumentum: Journal The Seminar Of Discursive Logic, Argumentation Theory & Rhetoric 10, no. 1 (January 2012): 71-81. (Available through CMMC)
- * van Dijck, José. "Facebook as a Tool for Producing Sociality and Connectivity." Television & New Media 13, no. 2 (March 2012): 160-176.