of True Womanhood. Sometimes called the Cult of Domesticity.
A belief widespread in and after the 19th century that differentiated
women from men. The belief was grounded in the natural differences
between men and women that portrayed women as the gentler sex, with
less strength than men, and thus in need of protection from physical
harm. As the factory economy replaced farm economies, workplaces
separated from home and women were assigned responsibility for the
domain of the household. The household was valued as a peaceful
refuge from the rough and tumble existence of the capitalist world.
More aggressive males were charged with defending the home and seeing
after it from the outside world including the rough and tumble world
of democratic government while women were to handle the needs of the
household. Finally, women were to be the nurturants of the gentler
and moral characteristics of life, responsible for raising the young
and instilling them with moral virtue. In the cult of true womanhood,
women who fit this description of the gendered women were valued by
society. See Republican Motherhood.
The intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th century that spread from Europe, through the Scottish universities (the Scottish Enlightenment) and into British North America (later the United States). Ideas championed by thinkers of the Enlightenment included the notion of social contract, taken from Rousseau and others, the importance of common sense experience, from the Scottish empirical tradition, the notion of truth emerging from rhetorical exchange, from the Scottish rhetorical philosophers, and the doctrine of natural rights from Locke and others. The ideas of the Enlightenment were given firm character in government as the spreading population of the colonies had to invent government. Then the American revolution gave them expression in a firm national governmental form.
Enthymatic Style: A style of discourse in which the force
of the speech is completed by the audience. The speaker's strategy
is to use words, metaphors, narratives, and so forth that allow the
audience to go beyond the speech itself and to fill in material from
Abolitionists located in the church of the reform crescent who argued
from a position that slavery was a sin against God.
Errand of Moral
Inheritance: An appeal, particularly common in the discourse
of the early 19th Century, that praises the accomplishments of ancestors
and then motivates public action as a debt to ancestors of such great
- Errand of Progress:
An appeal that establishes the American mission as progress, praises
the country for that progress, and motivates public action based on
contribution to progress.
- The experiential. A style of argument in which proof
is generated from the common experiences of the speaker and the audience.
Contrasts with a rhetoric of system and historical
proof. Authority in the experiential rests in having lived a rich
set of experiences that support the wisdom of the speaker's judgment.
- Farmer's Alliance:
Founded in 1877, by the 1880s the Farmer's Alliance had passed the
Grange in strength in the farm states. The Alliance was a product
of the Grange's reluctance to get into politics. The Alliance was
political from its beginning. The Alliance employed a system of electing
Orators, borrowed from the system of the Grange, but focused on the
ability to articulate the farmer's problems and their political solutions.
The Alliance also founded today's Cooperative movement (nonprofit
economic enterprises owned by their customers) to counter the economic
power of capitalists. They organized grain elevators, mills, banks,
and even in some cases railroads owned by farmers to protect the farmers
from exploitive relationships. The rhetoric of the Alliance was polemic
blaming the "money interests" for the dismal economic conditions
of the farmers. The Alliance merged with the Knights of Labor who
had a similar class rhetoric to form the Populist Party.
- Feminine Style:
The style of discourse that grew from the Women's Movement of the
19th century. The style is marked by certain characteristics that
Karyln Campbell attributes to women's experience with craft contexts
as a place for public life prior to the emergence of the movment.
The Grange: An
organization formed by Oliver H. Kelly of the United States Department
of Agriculture in 1867. Initially known as the Patrons of Husbandry,
the Grange was an organization designed to bring an education in
the scientific principles of agriculture to the farmer. The Grange
sponsored speeches by professors at the new land grant colleges
designed to bring their research to the farm. The Grange suffered
from the opposition of its national organization to political activity.
In the face of growing farmer problems with the economic system,
the Grange decliined in the late 1870s although the organization
continues today. The rhetoric of the Grange employed the narrative
of success to bring scientific principles to farming.
Ideograph: Words or phrases that
are pronounced in discourse to capture commitments of a social
community. Such notions as <democracy>, <liberty>, <freedom>,
or <rights> are created in social contracts and social practices
and exist because of the commitment of the social community to them.
Words like these are employed explicitly in rhetoric to invoke those
commitments motivationally. Note that ideographs are denoted in
rhetorical analysis by use of brackets.